Impeachment and ConvictionEdit
From the 1974 Congressional report, Constitutional Grounds for Impeachment, which analyzes the meaning of these provisions.
The Constitution deals with the subject of impeachment and conviction at six places. The scope of the power is set out in Article II, Section 4:
The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.
Other provisions deal with procedures and consequences. Article I, Section 2 states:
The House of Representatives. .. shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.
Similarly, Article I, Section 3, describes the Senate's role:
The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.
The same section limits the consequences of judgment in cases of impeachment:
Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.
Of lesser significance, although mentioning the subject, are: Article I, Section 2:
The President... shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.
Article III, Section 2:
The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury....
[Succession of vice president to presidency.]
In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President. Section 2
[Vacancy in office of vice president.]
Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.
If the President and Vice President are removed, the Speaker of the House becomes President. The act specifies the succession further.